Archives de catégorie : Séminaires

Framing Nature in Law – New European Pathways – Next session on Thursday 25 May at 5 PM

“Is there a spirit present ? The legal personnification of non-human entities”

By Géraldine Aïdan, CNRS, Université Paris II Panthéon Assas

How is the mind, understood in the broad sense (metaphysical, psychic, cognitive, or artificial), taken into account in the legal personification of non-humans ? By distinguishing the register of discourse from that of law, we shall return to what is meant by “legal person” in a Kelsenian conception and ask whether and under what conditions law can grasp what is “invisible” or what does not exist – according to a certain ontology. To what extent is law constrained by a prior ontology ? Can it attribute a legal personality to ghosts, spiritual creatures, protect the “well being” of a river or recognize a “psychic harm” to robots ?

Starting from positive law, we will propose the hypothesis of the emergence of a “psychepolitics reinforced” by the contemporary legal framework of the human mind extended to the non-human.

Connect via the Institut Jean Nicod Website

A co-organization by CEDRE and Prospero research center at Université Saint-Louis Bruxelles, CRED and CERSA laboratories of université Paris 2 Panthéon-Assas, and the ECN team (Environment : Concepts and Norms) of the Institut Jean Nicod at École normale supérieure.

Framing Nature in Law: New European Pathways – Next session on April 27

The matter of rights of nature has already been widely discussed across the globe. The ambition of this seminar is to focus on European developments and lines of thought in order to analyse how nature is conceptualised and translated into law. The recent recognition of the Mar Menor in Spain could be a first step, but it should be assessed critically.

The composition of the organising committee is inter- and multidisciplinary, gathering philosophers, lawyers and economists. We therefore particularly appreciate interdisciplinary approaches.

The main aim of the seminar is therefore to critically reflect on the ambiguities of rights of nature. Despite an increasingly noticeable presence in academic, activist and media spaces, it seems to us that the expression of rights of nature groups together approaches that are sometimes very different. Are we talking about rights in the purely legal sense of the term, or rather about moral rights ? Is it really the same thing to make nature a subject of law or a legal person ? Is it only a question of standing, inspired by “legal persons”, or is it a question of radically transforming the dominant paradigm(s) in environmental law ? After all, haven’t the rights of nature already been enshrined in a series of existing provisions, even though implicitly ? These questions cannot be avoided, especially when positions on the issue are very often more a matter of principle than of well-informed scientific analysis.

This seminar is co-organised by the CEDRE at the Université Saint-Louis Bruxelles, the CRED and CERSA laboratories of université Paris 2 Panthéon-Assas, the Prospero research center and the ECN team (Environment : Concepts and Norms) of the Institut Jean Nicod at École normale supérieure.

Location : On zoom – via this link 

Upcoming session

“Rights of Nature and the Ontological Turn” 

A presentation by Gauthier Dierickx (Université Saint-Louis – Bruxelles), on 27 April 2023 from 5 to 7p.m. (CET), online (via Zoom, link here

For proponents of the ontological turn (Latour, Descola, Viveiros de Castro, Stengers ?), the nature/culture divide, far from being universal and ahistorical, is actually a contingent product of what they call “Western Modernity”. Accordingly, other ontologies or worlds, they argue, are possible, and even appealing.My aim is threefold. First, I will demonstrate that an ontological approach can help us better understand the political and/or ecological implications of some rights of nature cases. Among other things, I will show that those cases try to resolve “ontological conflicts” (Blaser) between indigenous peoples and States. Second, I will argue that this ontological approach is also useful to grasp the interest  of Rights of Nature within a European framework. The experience of the Parliament of Loire (Parlement de Loire) will constitute here a precious resource. Finally, throughout this communication, I will, more speculatively maybe, examine the specific ontological regime of law, as well as the role that it may play in the advent of a “new climatic regime” (Latour).


The ambition of this seminar is to assess how nature is conceptualised and translated into law in Europe today, including (but not exclusively) via the issue of rights. The purpose of the webinar series is neither to advocate nor condemn rights of nature per se, but rather to figure out the opportunities and the limits of this pathway in the European context, taking due account of the current acquis ( on the habitats and birds directives for instance) and of important new legislative prospects (on restoring nature in Europe). Despite an increasingly noticeable presence in academic, activist and media spaces, it seems indeed that the expression of rights of nature groups together approaches that are sometimes very different. Are we talking about rights in the purely legal sense of the term, or rather about moral rights? Is it really the same thing to make nature a subject of law or a legal person? Is it only a question of standing, inspired by “legal persons”, or is it a question of radically transforming the dominant paradigm(s) in environmental law? After all, haven’t rights of nature already been enshrined in a series of existing provisions, even though implicitly? 

More info? Write to

Contact person at Université Saint-Louis Bruxelles: Gauthier Dierickx

14 juin – « Patrimoine et pratiques muséales. Réflexions croisées sur le corps humain dépouillé de sa personnalité »

Par Gaële Gidrol-Mistral (Professeure de droit privé, UQAM, Canada) et la Marie-Sophie de Clippele (Chargée de recherches FNRS, USL-B)

La question du corps humain, en particulier avant la naissance et après la mort, suscite un certain embarras du droit : ni chose ni personne, la qualification serait à aller chercher du côté du sacré. Pour autant, un statut n’apparaît pas clairement, ni un régime qui pourrait lui être accolé (appropriation, patrimonialisation, commercialisation ?).

Les deux oratrices présentent des réflexions croisées quant à la patrimonialisation du corps humain, tout en appliquant celles-ci au cas particulier des restes humains au musée.

Le séminaire est co-organisé par le Centre d’étude du droit de l’environnement  (CEDRE) et le Centre de droit privé de l’Université Saint-Louis – Bruxelles (CEPRI)

Entrée libre sur inscription via ce formulaire en ligne

Séminaire sur place, de 14 juin de 12h30 à 14h

Salle de cours : 2300
Université Saint-Louis
Rue du Marais 119
1000 Bruxelles

Flash-Info-CEDRE 22 juin: Towards a EU law on nature restoration ?

Towards a brand new « EU law » on nature restoration ? Why – or why rather not?

The EU Biodiversity Strategy 2030 holds the commitment for the European Commission to propose a new law with binding restoration targets. The proposal of the law has been delayed, and is now scheduled for June 2022. This presentation will deal with the advantages such a law could have, as well as possible bottlenecks

By Prof. Dr. An Cliquet, UGent

Introduction by Fanny Vanrykel, doctorante

Hybrid event – P30

1.     Summary of the presentation
Nature protection is an integral part of the EU Green deal and yet, it seems to have been sidelined in EU agenda. While the European Commission introduced a series of proposals in relation to energy and climate last July and more recently on the circular economy, the release of the nature conservation package has been awaited.
In particular, the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 held the commitment for the European Commission to propose a new law with binding restoration targets. This proposal was initially planned for some months ago but it has been delayed. However, current events are catching up with us as this package was released during our event. To discuss this topic, we have invited  Pr. An Cliquet.
 An Cliquet is a professor of international environmental and biodiversity law at Ghent University where she teaches courses on international and European environmental and biodiversity law, law and ethics on marine nature conservation, as well as some courses on public international law in general. She holds a PhD on “Nature conservation in the marine and coastal environment”. She is the author of numerous groundbreaking publications, such as the recent ‘EU nature conservation law, fit for purpose’. She has been involved in several commissions or working groups on nature policy and is the head of the faculty environmental commission.
In her presentation, Professor An Cliquet has discussed how a nature restoration law could fill certain gaps in the existing legal framework and identify the possible obstacles or difficulties to be addressed. Pr Cliquet has started by introducing the worrying state of ecosystems, in spite of the existence of legislation to protect them at EU level, including the Habitat Directive. Science, she underlined, tell us that we need to restore ecosystems. She then noted that while EU Member States have been acknowledged to have made insufficient progress to protect biodiversity, the Habitat Directive was considered to be ‘Fit for purpose’.
Then, Pr. Cliquet turned to the 2030 Biodiversity strategy. This is a lengthy strategy that part of the EU green deal and which is composed of several parts. This strategy among other things committed the Commission to propose legally binding nature restoration targets by 2021. The proposal for a restoration law faced several bottlenecks, especially with the Ukraine war which has led to tensions between biodiversity protection and food security. Ecological restoration is linked to the principle of ’no degradation’ which embeds that conservation status and trends of protected habitats & species should not be deteriorated any further. Other elements of the Strategy include the adoption by Member States of restoration plans covering forest, water ecosystems, urban areas, etc. Pr. Cliquet also briefly discussed the Global Biodiversity Agenda.
In a final part, Pr. Cliquet presented her vision of a EU restoration law. In her view, such a ‘law’ should: have a high ambition level, ensure additionally of restoration obligations, put high priority certain ecosystem types (wetlands and freshwater ecosystems, forests, permanent (semi-natural) grasslands…), propose minimum area targets and clear deadlines (2030, 2040, 2050), ensure non-deterioration for all peatlands, old-growth forests and semi-natural grasslands and be consistent with climate policy. It should also make sure that restoration is properly monitored, reported and funded, and scientifically grounded.
2.     Proposal for a Regulation on nature restoration
The Proposal for a new Restoration Law was released during our seminar. In what follows, I would like to outline the main elements of that Proposal and discuss them in light of Professor Cliquet’s presentation. The key points are the following:
1.     The proposal takes the form of a regulation: It seems that there is an ongoing trend to address environmental problems by means of regulations, as opposed to the use of Directives. We see a similar example with the European Climate Law (regulation 2021/119), which is also named ‘Law’. This can be explained by the willingness of the EU to make fast changes, by avoiding implementation problems that can be encountered with a Directive. As the explanatory memorandum underscores, ‘Since a regulation does not need to be turned into national law, it means restoration measures can start sooner on the ground compared to a directive’. (P 8)
2.     The proposal defines ‘restoration’ as the process of actively or passively assisting the recovery of an ecosystem towards or to good condition, of a habitat type to the highest level of condition attainable and to its favourable reference area, of a habitat of a species to a sufficient quality and quantity, or of species populations to satisfactory levels, as a means of conserving or enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem resilience (Article 3, (3), my emphasis). We thus see that there are several parts in its definition, depending on what is restored, i.e. an ecosystem, a habitat type, a habitat of a species or a species population. For each of these elements, the threshold of restoration is defined by the proposal.
3.     The proposal sets out a series of legally binding targets (Chapter II): These targets are distinguished according to the type of ecosystem concerned (territorial, costal, marine, forest, agricultural). It also contains specific targets e.g. for pollinators. The targets generally take the form of a percentage of the area in which restoration measures need to be in place. The proposal also includes a non-deterioration principle (e.g. Article 4, § 7).
4.     At the same time, the proposal allows some derogations upon justification, due to external events (e.g. climate change) or projects which either are ‘of overriding public interest for which no less damaging alternative solutions are available’ (non Natura 2000 sites) or for in cases covered by Article 6(4) of Directive 92/43/EEC, namely ‘imperative reasons of overriding public interest’, provided that compensatory measures are adopted (Natura 2000 sites).
5.     The proposal requires Member States to make restoration plans (Chapter III): By making these plans, Member States are compelled to carry out preparatory monitoring and research work to identify the restoration measures that are necessary to meet the targets and obligations above based on the latest scientific evidence. These plans will be assessed by the Commission.
6.     The proposal is conceived in synergy with other policy areas: For instance, national restoration plans, including the determination of which restoration measures should be prioritised, should be consistent with climate change mitigation and adaptation, and in particular with national energy and climate plans under Regulation 2018/1999. The proposal also refers to other pieces of EU legislation such as Birds and Habitats Directives.
7.     Finally, Member States are compelled to monitor and report biodiversity and ecosystem conditions (Chapter IV).

Fanny Vanrykel – 30 June 2022

26 April Webinar : PFAS-scandals in many European countries: what can we learn?


26 April 2022 online, from 15.00 to 17.00

The Netherlands, Germany and Flanders have recently been rocked by pollution scandals involving polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Just at a time when these countries/regions thought they had realised the bulk of their soil policy, emerging contaminants such as PFAS are making it clear that they have missed out on these toxic substances. Where did national/regional environmental policy and regulation go wrong? Why has European regulation not worked either? Is the circular economy threatened by the ubiquitous PFAS contamination? What is the exact role of the Treaty of Stockholm and the POPs Regulation in this respect?


  • Thomas Ormond, Regional administration in Frankfurt/M


  • Edward Brans, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
  • Christoph Krakau, Ministry of the Environment, Climate Protection and the Energy Sector Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • Isabelle Larmuseau, Leuven University, Belgium/Flanders


  • Debate with webinar participants

Pre-registration is required via ELNI-VVOR: PFAS-scandals in many European countries: what can we learn? (26/04/22)

16 March – Webinar Implementing the Green Deal – How many legal challenges for environmental law?


16 March, from 12.00 to 14.00 ONLINE

The Green Deal adopted by the Commission in December 2019 sets out the blueprint for a transformational change. In contrast to previous EU environmental programs, the Green Deal appears to be significantly more ambitious. However, it is being implemented in a piecemeal fashion with a flurry of strategies and twelve legislative proposals. The aim of the webinar is to give an overview of the legal challenges of the ongoing reform. 


  • Delphine Misonne, Université Saint-Louis, Belgium/Brussels


  • Nicolas de Sadeleer, Jean Monnet Chair, Université Saint-Louis, Belgium/Brussels
  • Alicja Sikora, Chair of European Law, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland
  • Jerzy Jendrośka, Opole University, Poland


  • Debate with webinar participants

Pre-registration is required via ELNI-VVOR: Implementing the Green Deal: how many legal challenges for environmental law? (16/03/22)

L’arrêt de la Cour de Karlsruhe sur la loi climat allemande

Webinaire du CEDRE, le mercredi 23 juin, de 12h15 à 14h.

Conférence du Prof. Gerhard Roller, Université de Bingen (Allemagne), juriste en résidence au CEDRE, Université Saint-Louis Bruxelles:

sur l’arrêt de la Cour fédérale constitutionnelle du 24 mars 2021, consacrant le succès partiel des recours constitutionnels dirigés contre la loi allemande relative à la lutte contre le changement climatique ( ref: 1 BvR 2656/18, 1 BvR 78/20, 1 BvR 96/20)

Discussion introduite par la Prof. Delphine Misonne, modératrice, à la lumière du jugement récemment rendu en Belgique dans le cadre de l’affaire Klimaatzaak.

Ici les slides présentés par le conférencier et l’enregistrement de la conférence.

Les enjeux du fédéralisme en Allemagne, dans le domaine de l’environnement et de la santé

Webinaire le mardi 8 juin 2021, de 14h à 16h30

Ici les SLIDES

Ici l’enregistrement (vidéo)

de la conférence du Prof. Gerhard ROLLER, Université de Bingen, Allemagne (sur le fédéralisme en Allemagne)

et de la réponse du Prof. François Tulkens, Université Saint-Louis Bruxelles (sur le fédéralisme en Belgique).

Le séminaire/webinaire portera sur les évolutions récentes du fédéralisme allemand, sous le prisme de l’environnement et de la crise sanitaire. On y analysera les points forts et faibles des structures sur le plan législatif et exécutif, dans ces secteurs de l’environnement et de la santé notamment. Le séminaire sera aussi l’occasion de mettre en perspective les leçons que l’on peut tirer des systèmes belges et allemands, concernant la régionalisation des compétences dans le domaine de l’environnement, par exemple.

Organisation, modération: Prof. Delphine Misonne, Université saint-Louis Bruxelles.

Infos pratiques

C’était quand ? Le mardi 8 juin, de 14h à 16h30 , online

Contexte: cycle “juriste en résidence” – Le CEDRE accueille actuellement le prof. Gerhard Roller dans le cadre de ses recherches en droit de l’environnement comparé & européen.

“Communautés et pratiques communautaires”

Nouveau WEBINAIRE dans le cadre du cycle COLLECTIF ET RESPONSABILITÉ – Jeudi 11 mars de 16h30 à 18h30 

Avec les prof. Gaële Gidrol-Mistral (UQAM, Canada) et prof. Mélanie Clément-Fontaine (UVSQ, France), directrices d’une Encyclopédie des communautés et des pratiques communautaires, à paraitre en 2021. Webinaire modéré par prof. Marie-Sophie de Clippele, Université-Saint-Louis Bruxelles, FNRS.

Participation gratuite mais inscription nécessaire avant le 10 mars: inscription en ligne obligatoire . Le webinaire aura lieu via TEAMS.

Webinaire CEDRE : La notion de tiers, avec François OST

Le mercredi 24 février de 12h à 14h 

Evènement virtuel

Dans le cadre du cycle de conférence “Collectif & Responsabilité” organisé par le CEDRE, le Professeur François Ost (USL-B) nous invite à mieux comprendre l’importance et les ressorts de la notion de “tiers”, qui est par ailleurs au cœur de son prochain ouvrage, Le droit ou l’empire du tiers.

Participation gratuite mais inscription en ligne obligatoire

Le webinaire aura lieu via Teams

23/11 – The constitutionalisation of Environmental Protection in EU Law – Webinar with A.SIKORA


The constitutionalisation 

of Environmental Protection in EU law

12h30. Introduction 

by Prof. Delphine Misonne, CEDRE, Université Saint-Louis Bruxelles

12h40. Constitutional dimension of environmental protection in EU law

by Dr. Alicja Sikora*, on the main tenets of her recent book “Constitutionalisation of environmental protection in EU law” (Europa Law Publishing 2020). 

13h30. Environmental Legal Principles – From Political Slogans to Legal Rules 

by Prof. Nicolas de Sadeleer, Université Saint-Louis Bruxelles, Jean Monnet Chair, on the new edition of its reference book on the function and legal status of environmental principles ( Oxford University Press 2020), with a special focus on EU law at the occasion of the webinar.

14h00. Discussion

by Prof. Luc Lavrysen, UGent, President of the Constitutional Court

Debate with the audience, moderated by Delphine Misonne. 

15h00. End of webinar

Please register before November 18, by sending an e-mail to:

 with mention Event23November 

The link to the webinar will be provided upon registration

* Associated researcher in CEDRE since January 2020, Dr. Alicja Sikora is an EU law academic, lecturer and practitioner with more than 16 years of experience in EU litigation, as a Legal Secretary at the Court of Justice of the European Union and as a Legal Advisor to the Council of the European Union. Graduate of Jagiellonian University and Université de Reims, Ph.D. in Law (Jagiellonian University, Cracow), Member of the Polish Bar (Cracow), Alicja Sikora currently acts as a Legal Advisor to the Council of the EU, and is a lecturer at the Faculty of Law of the Jagiellonian University. Her research interests focus on structural and constitutional aspects of EU law, as well as EU environmental law. She has published on variety of topics, including a monograph on the financial penalties under Article 260(2) and (3) TFEU (Kluwer Poland 2011).

30/09 – Webinaire Qualité de l’air et accès à la justice

30 Septembre 2020, 15h – 17h

Ce séminaire était organisé par le Centre d’étude du droit de l’environnement (CEDRE) de l’Université Saint-Louis – Bruxelles dans le cadre du cycle « Collectif et responsabilité », et par ClientEarth dans le cadre du projet « Accès à la justice pour une Europe plus verte » financé par le programme LIFE de la Commission européenne.

Lisez ici le RAPPORT ECRIT des interventions de U.Taddei, F. Lafforgue, J.Thijs & D. Misonne

Lors de ce séminaire en ligne, nous questionnions l’existence d’un accès à la justice suffisant en Belgique pour faire respecter la loi concernant la qualité de l’air et pour protéger les citoyens des effets indésirables de la pollution de l’air.

La pollution de l’air a des effets significatifs sur la santé et l’environnement. Selon le rapport 10/2019 sur la qualité de l’air en Europe publié par l’Agence européenne pour l’environnement (AEE), en 2016 environ 9.000 décès prématurés en Belgique étaient à attribuer à la pollution de l’air. Il apparait donc indispensable de surveiller attentivement l’évolution de la pollution de l’air afin de mettre en œuvre des plans de qualité de l’air adaptés.

Toutefois, depuis l’entrée en vigueur en 2010 des valeurs limites contraignantes pour le dioxyde d’azote (NO2) instaurées par la Directive 2008/50/EC sur la Qualité de l’air, la région de Bruxelles est en constant dépassement, de même que l’agglomération d’Anvers. En 2018, une procédure d’infraction lancée par la Commission contre la Belgique pour défaut de conformité avec la législation de l’Union sur la qualité de l’air avait ainsi remis en question les méthodes utilisées pour le contrôle de la qualité de l’air.

Depuis, à l’occasion d’une affaire portée par ClientEarth contre la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, la Cour de justice de l’UE dans l’affaire C-723/17 Craeynest a statué sur le droit des citoyens à saisir les tribunaux pour contester l’emplacement des points de prélèvement évaluant la qualité de l’air. Cette affaire a considérablement étendu le pouvoir du juge, à la fois vis-à-vis des autorités nationales compétentes pour vérifier l’emplacement des points de prélèvement, mais également en ce qui concerne l’appréciation de la pertinence des mesures prises pour améliorer la qualité de l’air.

Cycle de séminaires sur la gouvernance du climat en Belgique

Le défi des changements climatiques impose une transformation profonde de notre économie. Des actions urgentes doivent être menées pour engager les réformes nécessaires, suivant une vision stratégique à long terme. De telles mesures ne pourront être engagées et menées à bien que dans un cadre institutionnel et un système de gouvernance adéquats. Compte tenu de son système fédéral et de son architecture institutionnelle, la Belgique fait face à des défis d’envergure en la matière.

Dans ce contexte, le SPF Santé publique et Environnement (DG Environnement – Service Changements climatiques) et l’Université Saint-Louis Bruxelles (USLB) (Direction du projet: D. Misonne) organisent un cycle de séminaires sur la gouvernance belge en matière de climat. Continuer la lecture de Cycle de séminaires sur la gouvernance du climat en Belgique

Séminaire LES COMMUNS Actualité et vitalité de la notion à la croisée des enjeux environnement-culture

Le prochain séminaire sur ‘Les Communs’  aura lieu le 27 avril 2017, de 12h à 14h.

Notre invité sera le Prof. Axel Gosseries, FNRS Senior Research Fellow (Maitre de tech.), UCL, Chaire Hoover d’éthique économique et sociale, qui y abordera « l’idée de communs intergénérationnels et sa traduction institutionnelle »

Lieu:  Université Saint-Louis Bruxelles, salle P61

Continuer la lecture de Séminaire LES COMMUNS Actualité et vitalité de la notion à la croisée des enjeux environnement-culture